Frieda Mangold - 1 pound (460 g)
A German woman gave birth to a one-pound baby after only 21 weeks and five days of pregnancy, making it one of the world's most premature baby to survive.
When Frieda Mangold was born on November 7, 2010, she measured 11 inches (28 centimetres) and weighed only one pound (460 grammes). The hospital cites medical records for its information that Frieda is most premature baby known to have survived in Europe.
A baby was born in Ottawa, Canada in 1987 at exactly the same stage of its mother's pregnancy, and other premature babies have been lighter than her at birth, some even less than 300 grammes, but there is no mention of a premature baby even younger than Frieda, so, she has equalled the world record for surviving premature infant. She shares the world record with James Elgin Gill who was also born 128 days early in Ottawa, Canada in 1987.
Generally babies born before 22 weeks have no chance of surviving because their lungs, heart and brain are not sufficiently developed. Her twin brother Kilian died a few days after being born.
By the 15th week of pregnancy, the mother had consulted the clinic about pains, and during a routine visit to her gynecologist in late October, the doctor had noticed that the birth was imminent. At the clinic unfortunately doctors were only able to delay delivery of 10 days before the babies arrived.Professor Reinald Repp, director of the paediatric clinic said "Frieda was kept in a completely sterile environment, with her breathing assisted and fed through her navel,"
A normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. Experts on medical ethics advise doctors not to resuscitate babies born before 23 weeks in the womb, stating that it was not in the child's 'best interests'.
Any baby born before eight months of pregnancy is considered premature.
Very premature babies (less than 32 weeks) are considered at high risk of suffering developmental problems.
Prof Repp said that her survival was "a medical miracle" when she was born.
Five and a half months later, she is finally fit to leave the clinic in western Fulda, Germany, now weighing 7 pounds, 11 ounces (3.5kg) for 50cm (nearly 20 inches) in length. A Doctor at the clinic said "there is no foreseeable risk of after-effects for the moment" and the little girl "should develop normally like any other child."
Small babies - Low Birth Weight (LBW) or (SGA)
Small for gestational age (SGA) babies are those whose birth weight lies below the 10th percentile for that gestational age. Low birth weight (LBW), is sometimes used to define a baby that weighs less than 5 lb 8 oz (2500 g) regardless of gestational age. One third of babies born with a low birth weight are also small for gestational age.
Other definitions include Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) which is less than 3 lb 5 oz (1500 g), and Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) which is less than 2 lb 3 oz (1000 g).
About 10 percent of fetuses are low birth weight. A health care provider may suspect fetal growth restriction if the mother's uterus measurement (fundal height) is lower than expected. This can be confirmed with a series of ultrasounds that will monitor how quickly the fetus is growing.
The main causes for Low Birth Weight:
The two main causes of LBW are early delivery, also known as preterm birth, and poor fetal growth. About 70% of all LBW babies are born preterm - before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. The remaining 30% of low birth weight babies are born at full term, but did not grow properly in the womb.
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Some of the world's lowest birth weight babies
In the table below are some of the many Low Birth Weight babies born around the world. These tiny babies when born; many weeks premature, weighed less than a can of soda.
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